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Profession Journalist

Profession Journalist

Journalism is institutionally part of the polysystem of the media, it is part of the multifunctional institutions of society, such as the press, television, radio, the Internet and others. The profession of “journalist” is regulated in Ukraine, which is confirmed by the provisions of laws of Ukraine, bylaws. Professional activity includes collecting, creating, editing, preparing information for dissemination. Today in Ukraine, the professional status of a journalist is confirmed by an editorial certificate or other document. The Ukraine Supreme Legal Council is the national registration body that regulates the procedure for access to the profession in Ukraine. As of today, registration at the USLC and vocational training are required for the following professions: correspondent, reporter, TV and radio host, editor, editor-in-chief, proofreader, copywriter, etc.


Journalistic education is a part of specialized education regulated by the country that provides preparation for journalist. System of journalistic education in Ukraine includes higher journalistic education, complete higher journalistic education, postgraduate journalistic education. Ukraine’s higher education system is based on Constitution of Ukraine, the Laws of Ukraine:  “On information”, “ On print Media”, “On information agencies”, “ On the procedure for reporting the activity of official bodies in Ukraine mass media., “On radio and television”, “ On State support for the mass media of Ukraine” on  international agreements of Ukraine.Obtaining of a higher university degree is realized basing on several levels, which are relevant to levels of National Qualifications Framework (NQF):

  • initial level (short cycle); corresponds to the fifth level of NQF;
  • the first (bachelor) level; corresponds to the sixth level of NQF; 
  • the second (master) level; corresponds to the seventh level of NQF;
  • the third (educational and research/educational and creative) level; corresponds to the eighth level of NQF;
  • Research level; corresponds to the ninth level of NQF.

Graduation (obtaining higher journalistic education) means that person has successfully completed appropriate educational programme. It provides receiving of specific qualification level, degree: Junior Bachelor, Bachelor; Master; PhD; Doctor.

The junior bachelor’s degree in journalism is an educational-professional degree obtained at the primary level (short cycle) of higher education and awarded by a higher education institution as a result of successful completion of an educational-professional program of 120-150 ECTS credits.

The Bachelor of Journalism is an educational degree obtained at the first level of higher education and awarded by a higher education institution as a result of successful completion of an educational-professional program by a higher education applicant, the amount is 180-240 ECTS credits.

The Master of Journalism is an educational degree obtained at the second level of higher education and awarded by a higher education institution as a result of successful completion of the relevant educational program by the higher education applicant. A master’s degree in journalism is obtained through an educational-professional or educational-scientific program. The volume of the educational and professional training program for the Master of Journalism is 90-120 ECTS credits, the volume of the educational and scientific program is 120 ECTS credits 

Doctor of Philosophy is an educational and the first scientific degree obtained at the third level of higher education on the basis of a master’s degree. The degree is awarded by a specialized academic council of a higher education institution or research institution as a result of successful implementation of the educational and scientific program and public defense of the dissertation. 

The volume of the educational component of the educational-scientific program of preparation of the doctor of philosophy makes 30 – 60 credits of ECTS.

The Doctor of Science in Social Communications is the second scientific degree obtained by a person at the scientific level of higher education on the basis of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and provides for the acquisition of the highest competencies in the development and implementation of research methodology. The degree is awarded by a specialized academic council of a higher education institution or research institution based on the results of public defense of scientific achievements in the form of a dissertation or published monograph.

A person who has successfully completed the relevant educational program and passed the certification is issued a document on higher journalism education at the appropriate levels. An integral part of the bachelor’s and master’s degree is the appendix to the European diploma, which contains structured information about the completed studies.


The quality assurance system for journalism education in Ukraine consists of:

  • systems of providing higher education institutions with the quality of educational activities and the quality of education (internal quality assurance system);
  • systems of external quality assurance of educational activities of higher educational institutions and quality of education;
  • quality assurance systems of the National Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education and independent institutions for evaluation and quality assurance of higher education.


More detailed information on the national system of higher education can be found on the website of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine.


To ensure the proper functioning of “journalism” in Ukraine as a profession, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine represented by the relevant ministries, namely the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, the national registration body represented by the High Council of Lawyers of Ukraine, unions and independent self-government organizations whose main activity is to assist journalists in carrying out their professional tasks. In addition to the general profession, the profession of a journalist is regulated by specialized laws, where the regulatory bodies are also the National Union of Journalists of Ukraine (NSJU), the National Media Trade Union of Ukraine (NMTU).

Journalists are supported by the Ministry of Information Policy and considers one of its main tasks to protect the rights to receive, access and disseminate information.

The Law of Ukraine “On Protection of Professional Activity of Journalists” regulates relations arising in the process of professional activity of a journalist, establishes the basics of legal protection, defines professional rights and responsibilities of a specialist, establishes liability for violation of legislation on protection of professional activity. In order to enjoy the rights of a specialist whose status has been confirmed, a person must confirm this. According to the Law of Ukraine “On Printed Mass Media”, a supporting document or other document issued to it by the editorial board of a printed mass media may be a confirming document. The same law states that a journalist’s professional affiliation can be confirmed by a document issued by a professional association of journalists (National Union of Journalists of Ukraine (NAU), National Media Trade Union of Ukraine (NMPU)). aimed at registering the profession of journalist in Ukraine.

Acquired journalism education entitles the person / holder of the relevant diploma to be recognized as a specialist in the field of journalism. In order to obtain the status of a journalist, a person performs a number of actions, the list of which includes primary registration in the HCJ.

Registration in the USLC is a procedure according to which a person who has successfully completed the educational program and mastered the key criteria for mastering the profession, has the right to apply to the registration authority for official registration of their professional status in Ukraine.

The USLC, as a registration body, conducts a relevant inspection of the documents submitted by a person for their compliance with current legislation and establishes a fact that has legal significance, namely, provides REGISTRATION OF PROFESSIONAL STATUS.


As of 2016, there was no single registration body in Ukraine that would provide a proper service on the confirmation of professional competence in the relevant professional field, registration of proper legal registration of relevant rights and reflection of the disciplinary status of the person to be decided.


Functions’ execution of the registration body is provided by formation of the unified structured base (Register) on a professional direction for the purpose of establishment of a universal confirmation way of the declared information during employment, studying, internship, etc.

The data of the register reflects information about the candidate, obtained qualification, registered right to execute professional activity in Ukraine, form of activity, as well as other important information. The path of a person who has expressed a desire to become a journalist is quite difficult and consists of a number of STEPS. Let’s consider it in details.

The first step

Graduation. A complete secondary education may be acquired in general and specialized secondary schools, boarding schools, lyceums, gymnasiums, colleges, and other institutions of general secondary education of the ІІІ grade. A complete secondary education may also be obtained in a vocational educational institution, or institution of higher learning of the I-II accreditation levels. Graduates who have high academic results are awarded the gold medal “For High Academic Achievements” or the silver medal “For Academic Achievements” and receive а certificate of complete general secondary education with distinction. This certificate comes with a supplement specifying the scores earned for educational achievements. Graduates of the 11th grade who fail the examination in at least one subject receive school report cards in which the mark of “failed” is placed against each such subject. Secondary school graduates are required to pass the independent external knowledge assessment test in the subjects required for the enrollment in a chosen institution of higher learning. This higher educational institution may change the list of such subjects following its enrollment requirements.

Registration and independent external knowledge assessment test.  Provision of external evaluation carried out by the Ukrainian Center for Educational Quality Assessment in partnership with local education authorities, Regional Institute of Postgraduate Education, educational institutions. Person who has a certificate of complete secondary education or will have got it by the end of a year has a right to take independent external knowledge assessment test. To be successfully registered for an external independent evaluation, you must create and issue a registration card, create a set of registration documents and submit it to the person responsible for registration in the educational institution (for school leavers, students of vocational schools and colleges who are graduating this year) or send it to the relevant regional center for the evaluation of the quality of education (for graduates of previous years). The set of registration documents must contain:

  • issued registration card, the form of which is formed using a special service “to be Registered”;
  • application for participation in an additional session;
  • a true copy of ID card of a citizen of Ukraine;
  • a true copy of Certificate of Secondary Education (for graduates of previous years).
  • if necessary, other documents (medical opinion on the creation of special conditions for the external assessment, copy of the document changing name / surname, a copy of a notarized translation into Ukrainian of documents provided in a foreign language for registration).

The registration card must be generated using a special service ” to be Registered”. To enter the journalistic faculties of higher educational institutions, it is necessary to pass an external examination in such subjects as Ukrainian language and literature, English language, history of Ukraine. For more information on conducting an external independent evaluation, see the link.

Getting results. The result of the external examination is showed in the standard-issue certificate, which provides information about the completed subjects and points obtained. External evaluation results are credited as admission tests to a higher education institution. The average score of the certificate of Secondary Education is also taken into account during the competition to the university.

The second step

Principles of admission process. The admission campaign in Ukraine starts every year in June with an external independent evaluation of school leavers. Admission process is based on available rating points, which are defined as the sum of points obtained by tests of external independent assessment, the average score of the certificate and additional points for outstanding academic achievements (winners of All-Ukrainian Olympiads, competitions of the Small Academy of Sciences, international competitions, etc.). Ukrainian entrants have the right to apply for admission to higher education institutions in paper or electronic form. Documents’ acceptance from applicants usually lasts during July.

Collecting and submitting documents. After the person has decided on the educational institution, it is necessary to submit a package of documents for obtaining the appropriate education and qualification level, namely:

  • A standard-issue application (in paper form).
  • Certificate of Secondary Education (document on the obtained educatione and qualification level) and its appendix
  • EIT Certificate, with scores in subjects required for admission by the university
  • Six photos in color sized 3 x 4 cm
  • Document certifying the identity and citizenship of the entrant + copies of the first and second pages
  • A copy of the ID code
  • Military ticket (or certificate of enlistment in the conscription station) for male entrants
  • Confirming documents for benefits
  • Admission tests’ certificates

Enrollment of entrants for studying at the state budget’s expense and at the personal’s expense takes place in the first half of August. The conditions of admission to higher education institutions approved by the Ministry of Education and Science can be viewed at the following link.

The third step

Studying and internship. While studying at a higher educatione institution, a person may have an internship in private or public organizations.

The fourth step

Obtaining a diploma. A person who has successfully completed the relevant educational program and passed the certification is issued a document on higher journalistic education at the appropriate level. An integral part of the bachelor’s and master’s degree is the appendix to the European diploma, which contains structured information about the completed studies.

Registration in USLC. The person fills in standard-issue registration application and the questionnaire. After that, USLC provides a list of documents that should be scanned. The application is processed by specialists within 10 working days, as a result the conformity and authenticity of the submitted documents are provided by the Department of Registers, which provides assistance in order to include the person to the relevant Register in the appropriate professional field.

Inclusion in the register and creation of an office. Confirmation of registration of a Journalist is Registration Authority Certificate. The next step is to include a person in the Register and to create an electronic account of a professional, with the keys for access. The result of the inclusion of a journalist to the register is Certificate of Registration Professional Status.

The fifth step

In-service training. Journalistic courses and in-service training contribute to the development of professional skills in the field of Journalism for future correspondent, reporter, TV and radio host, editor, editor-in-chief, proofreader, copywriter and many others. At the courses for journalists you can get a diploma, certificate of in-service training.

The sixth step. An access to specialized occupation.


  1. Preparatory stage. A person, who plans to emigrate for working or educational purposes, should understand that there are certain barriers for accessing a regulated profession, such as the requirements to have a recognized diploma, the obligation to take a state exam, or professional experience. Accessing conditions to a regulated profession are defined in Law system of each country.
  2. The first step to obtain the status of “JOURNALIST” is to choose the country and determine the registration authority that regulates professional activities and issues a certificate confirming the right to be a journalist.
  3. After applying to the registration authority, the person will be provided with a list of required documents for submission in order to obtain a permit to carry out professional activity. Most likely, the first point will be the recognition of educational documents obtained abroad – verification. Verification is carried out by organizations authorized by structural units. As each country has its own verification organizations, the list can be found following the link ENIC-NARIC. This procedure is aimed to compare the person’s education with the country’s educational programs. Based on the results of the review, the compliance of the provided educational documents is confirmed or denied and a document with a conclusion is provided. In addition, in case of non-compliance, such a document indicates differences in educational programs, which must be compensated by additional training, courses.

List of documents to be submitted to the verification body:

  • application for recognition;
  • educational document (with an apostille stamp and translation into the state language, notarized copies);
  • appendix to the educational document (with an apostille stamp and translation into the state language, notarized copies);
  • ID card.

In order to carry out a comprehensive examination and to establish the equivalence of educational programs, verification body makes a request to Image Center to determine the fact of studying, university status and accreditation, average score, comparison of educational programs etc.

  1. After successful recognition of educational documents, the next step is to fill in an application for access to the profession in the registration authority of a foreign country and to take necessary exams. The main ones are the language exam and the professional test. Referral and advice on the professional exam is provided by a verification body and acquaints the candidate with the necessary requirements. English language exams are IELTS, TOEFL, Cambridge ESOL, FCE, BULATS, etc., German is Goethe-Zertifikat, Spanish are DELE, SIELE and others.

Other requirements may include: an examination of knowledge of the the country’s legislation, the availability of practical experience for a specified period, a certain number of working hours, the presence of a license to operate in the country of origin of the candidate, and so on.

5. The result of confirmation of fulfillment of all necessary requirements of the registration body is the issuance of a permit for professional activity. The stage is accompanied by finding an employer and obtaining a visa or work permit.

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